Pre-salt Reservoirs Offshore Brazil Perspectives And Challenges-brock lesnar

UnCategorized The discovery of the pre-salt reservoirs located in the Santos Basin, 300 km from the coast of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, is considered to be one of the greatest discoveries of the recent past, especially for America. The Tupi oil field was the first to be discovered in the year 2007. Petrobras (Petroleo Brasileiro), the state-controlled oil .pany, estimated the reserves to be equivalent to about 5 to 8 billion barrels of oil, making it the largest among deep-water oil field finds. Sugar loaf and Jupiter natural gas-fields are large reserve findings that followed the giant Tupi oil field; the region also en.passes other findings like Iara, Tupi Sul, Carioca , etc. The pre-salt reservoir discoveries hold great prospects for Brazil and the entire world. Petrobras along with the other members of the consortia are already working on the reservoirs; however, the work is still in its early stages. The Petrobras Oil .pany has framed a number of strategies to handle the production in the most ideal way possible. The geological features of the area pose great challenges to the process of production and production itself; these features must be over.e for an optimum production process. A plan of action is drafted in order to achieve standardization for the finest quality equipment, the hardware associated with it and subsea hardware such as wellheads, flexible lines, subsea manifolds, etc. This strategy involves expanding to the FPSO (which stands for, Floating Production Storage and Offloading), as the production area is far off from the coast and FPSOs are best suited for deep water locations. A DP FPSO for an extended Well Test is under reconstruction. For projects that require rapid results appropriate procedures are devised and apt FPSOs are adopted such as Plangas FPSOs, Golfinho FPSOs, Roncador 1st DP FPSO, etc. Contracts have been signed and negotiations are going on with the suppliers, the service .panies, the different partners, and investors in various matters concerning the future of the production. The scope and approval of financial plans of the project is being discussed with the members of the consortia; alternative methods to transporting gas to as opposed to the conventional trunk line is being discussed with the market and also long-established contracts have been signed with service .panies. The facies (character of a rock expressed by its formation, .position, and fossil content) as obtained from a seismic survey shows the .plicated geological feature of the region thus making it difficult for the production process. The interior of the reservoir is highly heterogeneous where that salt layer alone is about 2000 m thick. The heterogeneity of the carbonates also causes shifting reservoir quality. The reservoir character also questions the possibility of injection of water and gas for production. The geomechanics of the surrounding rocks is also a matter of concern. There are also issues related to Well Engineering. There are high probabilities that the wells will drift to the salt region. The well-bore resistance to Carbon dioxide needs special attention and preventive methods should be taken to prevent corrosion. In the case of horizontal wells, there are chances for hydraulic fracture (fracture of the well due to liquid movement) to occur. As time is also an important constraint in the production process, slow penetration of the wells into the reservoirs also a problem. There are chances of paraffin distribution in the flow pipes. This deposition is caused due to the precipitation of paraffin on the pipe wall. This condition is made worse by more diffusion of paraffin from the flowing solution to the deposits. The occurrence of hydration (to chemically .bine with water) and scaling also poses problems for production and must be controlled. The distance from the shore is also high and there is also a need for latest technologies offshore. The production units are also anchored in deep waters and the connection with the ships riser is difficult. Moreover, considering the carbon dioxide content and the pressure of the water, the warranty of the riser to function in water depths of about 2000 m is questionable. There is also the need for platforms that have good access to the wells. If everything goes according to plan there is a promise of more jobs in this area and an extension on the time when oil resources are totally depleted About the Author: 相关的主题文章: